# Program Overview

The Department of Philosophy offers programs covering a wide range of fields in philosophy. The department’s graduate program is primarily a PhD program. In addition to the standard PhD in Philosophy, the department offers a PhD in Classical Philosophy in collaboration with the Department of the Classics, a PhD in Indian Philosophy in collaboration with the Department of South Asian Studies, and a joint JD/PhD program in conjunction with the Harvard Law School. Below you will find a list of the requirements for each program. The department does not admit applicants who wish to study only for the master’s (AM) degree. The AM may be taken as a step toward the PhD after a minimum of two terms in residence.

#### PhD in Philosophy

The department’s arrangement for advising students is structured so as to correspond to four stages of a student’s progress toward the PhD. These stages include the first year, the second-year paper, reading and research toward a dissertation topic, and work on the dissertation.

1. The director of graduate studies is assigned as an advisor to all first-year students and continues to meet with all students at the beginning of each term and sign their study cards throughout their time in the program. Her or his advising role is particularly important during the coursework stage (generally through the second year), because she or he has principal responsibility for monitoring the student’s progress toward fulfilling the general requirements for the degree: the preliminary requirement, the distribution requirement, and the language requirements. In addition, each first-year student is assigned an informal faculty advisor.
2. At the end of the first year, a student should arrange with a member of the faculty to supervise the student’s second-year paper. That faculty member will be the student’s advisor during the second year. If necessary, the director of graduate studies is available to assist a student in finding a suitable faculty member.
3. At the beginning of the third year, a student should arrange for a faculty member to be his or her advisor during the process of exploring areas for a possible dissertation and formulating a topic and a prospectus. This advisor may be the same person as the second-year paper advisor, but need not be. Normally, a student will continue with this advisor until the topical examination, but change is possible by arrangement among the parties involved.
4. When a prospectus is well along, the student should discuss the formation of a dissertation committee (normally three faculty members) with the advisor, the director of graduate studies, and possible committee members. This committee will conduct the topical examination and, if the student passes, will continue supervising the student’s work on the dissertation. Normally it will serve as the defense committee when the dissertation is completed. However, during work on the dissertation, change is possible by arrangement with the parties involved and with the approval of the director of graduate studies. At this stage, one member of the committee will be designated as the student’s advisor. The significance of this will vary as the supervision of dissertations is more collective in philosophy, for example, than in many other fields. In some cases the advisor will be the principal supervisor, in others the role of the committee members will be close to equal and the choice of one advisor is a matter of convenience.

### Preliminary Requirement

Candidates must pass at least twelve approved courses or seminars during their first four terms in the department. Courses numbered 301 or above do not count toward this preliminary requirement, but the two required terms of Philosophy 300, the First Year Colloquium, may be counted as three of the twelve. If a letter-graded course record is to be considered satisfactory, the candidate’s grades in these courses must be B or higher.

Courses taken to meet the preliminary requirement must be approved in advance by the department’s director of graduate studies. Students must take and complete Philosophy 300a plus two letter-graded courses or seminars during their first term and Philosophy 300b plus three letter-graded courses or seminars more in their second term, thus completing five letter-graded courses during the first two terms of residence, with grades of B or higher.

These courses, like the rest of the twelve, should be among those designated “For Undergraduates and Graduates” or “Primarily for Graduates” in the course catalogue. At least ten of the courses must be taught by members of the Department of Philosophy (including visiting and emeritus members). This requirement can be modified for students specializing in Classical or Indian Philosophy.

All graduate students must complete two semesters of the Pedagogy seminar, Philosophy 315hf. Normally this is done during a student's third year in the program, when students begin functioning as teaching fellows. Exceptions to taking 315hf in the third year must be approved in advance by the DGS.

Students who have done graduate work elsewhere may petition to obtain credit for up to three courses, which may be counted toward the preliminary requirement. If they are in philosophy (as would normally be the case), such courses will be regarded as equivalent to those taught by members of the department.

### Distribution Requirement

This requirement, intended to ensure a broad background in philosophy, is met by completing eight distribution units of work before the beginning of the fourth year of graduate study. A distribution unit may be fulfilled (i) by completing an approved course or seminar (which may also be counted toward the preliminary requirement), or (ii) by writing a paper under the guidance of a faculty member, with the approval of the director of graduate studies. In the latter case the work does not count toward the preliminary requirement.

The units are to be distributed as follows:

1. Contemporary Theoretical Philosophy: Three units in core areas of twentieth- and twenty-first century metaphysics, epistemology, philosophy of science, philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, and the like.
2. Practical Philosophy: Two units in contemporary or historical ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and the like.
3. History of Philosophy: The distribution requirement in history is intended to assure that students have knowledge of the philosophical tradition out of which contemporary Anglo-American philosophy has grown, as well as an ability to work though texts whose philosophical presuppositions are different enough from those of contemporary Anglo-American philosophy that careful historical and philosophical analysis is required to bring them to light.

Three sorts of courses satisfy the requirement:

A. Courses in ancient Greek, Roman, or medieval philosophy.

B. Courses in early modern European philosophy up to and including Kant.

C. Courses on the foundations of philosophical traditions other than contemporary Anglo-American philosophy. These might include courses on traditional South Asian or East Asian philosophy, 19th century Continental European philosophy, early 20th century work of Heidegger, and so on.

A student must take three history courses to satisfy the requirement; at most one of these may be in practical philosophy. Save in the most exceptional circumstances (and with the approval of the DGS), at least one of these courses must be of category A and at least one must be of category B. Students should verify (with the DGS) in advance of taking a course to satisfy the requirement that the course will in fact satisfy it.

The First-Year Colloquium (Philosophy 300a and 300b) may not be used to fulfill any part of the distribution requirement. Philosophy 299hf, the second-year paper, may be used to fulfill a distribution requirement.

### Logic Requirement

Candidates for the Ph.D. are expected to have mastered the fundamentals of logic and to have an understanding of the elements of logic’s metatheory. Normally, this requirement is satisfied by successfully completing one of the Department’s 100-level courses in logic: 140 (Introduction to Mathematical Logic), 144 (Logic and Philosophy), or 145 (Modal Logic). It can also be satisfied by taking an appropriate mathematics course (for example, Mathematics 143, 144a, or 145b). The requirement may also be satisfied by an examination set by the DGS in consultation with appropriate Department members or by serving as a TF in a Department logic course.

### Second-Year Paper

Students are required at the end of their second year in residence to submit a paper whose length is between 7500 and 12,000 words including footnotes.

The expectation is not that the second-year paper should constitute a kind of Masters Thesis; a better model is that of a journal article: i.e., an essay that sets out a focused philosophical problem, articulates its significance, and makes a significant contribution rather than a mere intervention. Given this goal, the second year paper may under no circumstances be over 12,000 words, and generally will be significantly shorter. Students must annotate the paper with an accurate word count.

By the end of the first year, students need to have a faculty advisor who will supervise the second year paper. Together the advisor and advisee will write a plan of study for the first term, and submit it to the DGS. This plan of study will specify a schedule for submitting work and receiving feedback, and will also specify a benchmark to be met before the beginning of the second semester.

A preliminary draft of the second-year paper is to be submitted by the end of the spring vacation of the second semester, and a final draft is due by June 1st. Under extraordinary circumstances and with the written approval of both advisor and the DGS, the final version of the paper may be submitted after June 1st, but no later than August 1st.

Once the second year paper is submitted to the advisor, the advisor forwards the paper to the DGS, who selects a faculty member to act as the paper’s examiner. The author, advisor, and examiner meet in a timely manner to discuss the paper, after which the examiner in consultation with the advisor awards the paper a grade. This grade will be recorded as the student’s grade for her two semesters of 299hf.

### The Third Year

The Third Year

In a successful third year, graduate students do two things: they acquire pedagogical skills and confidence as teachers; they make enough progress on isolating a dissertation topic that they are able, at the end of that year or by the end of the first term of the fourth year, to write a prospectus and have a successful topical exam.

Normally, at the end of a student's second year, the student's 2YP advisor and the DGS consult and then assign a pre-prospective advisor to the student. The pre-prospectus advisor need not, and often will not, be someone who specializes in the area in which a student expects to write a dissertation. Rather, the advisor is someone with whom the student is comfortable discussing philosophy and who can advise about directions of research. In many cases the pre-prospectus advisor may be the 2YP advisor, since the student has formed a working relationship with that faculty member.

The student and pre-prospectus advisor should meet before the end of spring exams. The meeting's purpose is to discuss the student's general area(s) of interest for a dissertation and, if the student is ready, to devise a tentative list of articles or books which the student will read and reflect on over the next twelve months.

G3s meet with their pre-prospectus advisor in the first days of the fall term. The aim of this meeting is to give the student a manageable set of concrete tasks to complete toward settling on a prospectus topic. In this meeting, advisor and student should decide on: a collection of at least six articles or book chapters to discuss at meetings; a schedule for meetings during the fall (the norm being a meeting roughly every two weeks); the written work the student commits to doing in advance of each meeting. This work need not be elaborate --it might, for example, be a few pages of critical summary and discussion of the reading for the meeting.

The norm is that in the fall term of year 3 students do research in the area in which they expect to write so that they can fashion a fairly specific topic for the prospectus; spring term is then devoted to writing a prospectus. Typically, students exchange their pre-prospectus advisor for a prospectus advisor working in the relevant research area in the second semester of their third year if the pre-prospectus advisor does not work in the area of the student's dissertation.

The norm is that students aim at having a prospectus and a topical before the beginning of classes in the fourth year; the expectation is that students have done a topical by the end of the first term of their fourth year.

All G3s who have completed their second year paper join one of the dissertation workshops.  G3s are not  required to present more than once a year in a workshop, and it is understood that their presentations may consist of such things as (constrained) literature reviews, overviews of the particular area in a sub-discipline, or drafts or presentations of a prospectus.

### Language or Research Tool Requirement

Ideally, philosophy involves a dialog with other disciplines --philosophy of mind with, for example, psychology and neuroscience; metaphysics with, for example, physics; moral and political philosophy with, for example, the law and social studies. Ideally, philosophy involves a dialog with its history, understanding its insights and mistakes. Ideally, philosophy is done in a way that transcends cultural barriers, with philosophers from one country who work primarily in one language in dialog with philosophers from other countries who speak other languages.

A philosopher who approached the ideals above would be: conversant with the work of a discipline outside of philosophy that is relevant to her work; able to read historically important work written in a language other than English; able to fluently participate in philosophical conversations in at least two languages. It is too much to expect of graduate students that they have such a range of knowledge and abilities by the time they graduate from Harvard. But the Department does expect and require that graduate students have taken steps towards at least one of the ideals mentioned above before graduating.

To this end, a student for the Ph.D. is required to demonstrate one of the following:

1. The ability to read and interpret philosophical work in either ancient Greek, Latin, French, or German. The normal way to demonstrate this ability is to successfully complete a year-long reading course in of these languages conducted by a faculty member in the Philosophy Department. In special cases (for example, a student who comes to the program with a strong academic background in one of these languages) and with the approval of the DGS, this requirement may be satisfied by course work done outside of the Department.
2. Advanced knowledge of a discipline outside of philosophy that is relevant to the student’s dissertation. Normally this requirement is to be satisfied in one of the following ways: (1) Taking and passing with a grade of B or better, and with the prior approval of the DGS, at least two advanced courses in a discipline outside of philosophy that is relevant to one’s philosophical work; (2) possessing an advanced degree in such a discipline; (3) with the prior approval of the DGS, certain intensive summer programs may count. Students who expect to work in logic or set theory may satisfy this requirement by taking advanced logic or mathematics courses. Normally this requirement cannot be satisfied by undergraduate course work.
3. The ability to fluently participate orally and in writing in philosophical debate in at least two modern languages. Graduate students who have completed a B.A. or its equivalent at a school in which instruction is conducted primarily in a language other than English are considered to have satisfied this requirement. Other ways to satisfy the requirement are determined on a case by case basis; one route is to provide a satisfactory comparison of translations of a philosophical passage into (or from) English, giving an assessment of their differences and relative advantages and drawbacks.

Students who satisfy the requirement by displaying ability in a language other than English are required to begin completing the requirement no later than the semester after their topical occurs.  Those satisfying the tools requirement must (no later than the time of their topical) give the DGS a tentative list of courses they propose to use, as well as a schedule for taking them. It is expected that the requirement will be completed by the end of the first semester of the 5th year.  Students who have not begun satisfying the requirement may not receive a PDF.

### Financial Support

Beyond tuition remission Ph.D. students normally receive the following financial support from the Graduate School.

A full stipend for their first two years. During this period, students do not teach.

A full stipend for their third and fourth year. During this period, students are teaching fellows; the normal load for a teaching fellow is two sections a term.

A student who announces her or his intention to complete a dissertation in an academic year is normally awarded a Dissertation Completion Fellowship by the Graduate School, which includes a full stipend for that academic year.

In addition, various university fellowships (for example: Term Time and Merit Fellowships, Fellowships at the Safra Center) are available on a competitive basis.

Finally, the Department currently awards (out of its own funds) a half year's stipend (a Philosophy Dissertation Fellowship, or PDF) to students who have completed the topical exam for their dissertation.

There are two application periods for a PDF. Eligible graduate students may apply either during the Spring term by the end of spring exam period or in the Fall term by October 15.

A student is eligible to apply for a PDF once they have completed the topical exam, and is otherwise in good standing. 'good standing' is explained below.

Students apply by writing to the DGS after a successful topical. They should indicate in their applications the date of the topical, tentative dissertation title, the chair of the dissertation committee, other members thereof, and which of the two following terms they prefer to take the fellowship (i.e., the next fall or following spring for May applicants; the next spring or following fall for October applicants).

Whether students are awarded PDFs is subject both to availability of funds and to the Department’s teaching needs. It does not depend on whether students are awarded other fellowships such as a Safra or Merit Fellowship.  It is the student's responsibility to inform the grad reps as to when they will be teaching in the year following a successful application for a PDF.

There are two components to being in good standing. The first is that one is making sufficient progress towards the Ph.D.; the second is that one has discharged one's teaching responsibilities in a satisfactory manner.

Norms for being in good academic standing include but are not limited to the following: By the beginning of a student's third year, having successfully completed the second year paper requirement and successfully completed at least 10 of the 12 philosophy courses required for the degree; by the beginning of a student's fourth year, having completed at least 11 of the 12 courses required for the degree and having satisfied the logic requirement; by the beginning of the student's fifth year, having successfully completed all requirements for the Ph.D., including the topical (but excluding the dissertation). These, it is to be stressed are norms: different students make progress at different rates, and not precisely conforming to these norms need not mean that you are not making satisfactory progress. (If you do not meet the guidelines above, consult with the DGS.)

The primary norms for discharging one's teaching responsibilities in a satisfactory manner are these: attendance at all lectures unless given explicit excuse not to; meeting with all sections unless given advance permission by one's course head; grading papers, exams, and other work in a reasonable amount of time and in an appropriate manner (e.g., applying standards for grades in a consistent fashion, giving adequate comments on papers); keeping a reasonable number of office hours. These, it is to be stressed, are norms: in some situations (for example, serious illness or family emergencies) different behavior may be called for.

Students may receive a PDF just once while in the program.

### Travel and Research Funding

The Philosophy Department gives each graduate student up to $5,000 for research. Graduate students may use of up to$1000 during their G1 and G2 years for travel whose primary purpose is academic in nature.  In the third year and later, department travel funds may be used to support:

Travel to a workshop or conference to present or comment on a paper.

Travel to a workshop or conference where the subject matter is clearly related to the student’s dissertation research.

Travel to a library/institution with a collection related to the student’s dissertation.

In exceptional cases, travel to meet with a dissertation advisor. Normally, such meetings are held via Skype.

Support for a foreign language course.

Requests for funds are submitted to and must be approved by the DGS. Requests must indicate how the requested funds fall under the guidelines; they must also include a rough budget. Prior to applying to the DGS for funding, please confirm with Emily Ware the amount of funding remaining in your account.  Students may be able to receive travel funds in advance of travel when it would be a hardship to pay for travel out of the student's own funds.  Contact Emily Ware if you would like to arrange this.  Note that students are required to file a brief report after travel which details how travel funds were used and what the student accomplished using those funds.  Failure to file such a report in a timely fashion renders a student ineligible for funds for a calendar year.

Your travel funds need to last for the duration of your graduate studies, so please shepherd them carefully. Remember that it costs less to attend several conferences in the US and more to attend one or two abroad. It may also be preferable to use more of the funds after selection of your dissertation topic.

To stretch your funding, apply for outside funds. The graduate school has a fellowship for language study for which you can apply (https://gsas.harvard.edu/financial-support/fellowships). There are GSC Conference Grants (http://gsc.fas.harvard.edu/services) which provide up to $750 to defray the cost of travel to conferences. Students who matriculated between 2015 and 2019 are also eligible for a professional development award of up to$2,500 to cover approved expenses: https://gsas.harvard.edu/student-life/harvard-resources/professional-development-fund.

Graduate student travel support is not available once one has graduated from Harvard. Neither is it available beyond the year one takes a dissertation completion fellowship. It is suspended when a student leaves the program to attend another school or goes on leave.

### Dissertation Workshops

Students who have completed their second year paper are required to enroll each term in one of the two dissertation workshops, Philosophy 311, Workshop in Moral and Political Philosophy and Philosophy 312, Workshop in Metaphysics and Epistemology.  In an academic year in which a student is actively seeking post Ph.D. employment, they will be allowed to enroll in a workshop for a single semester.

This a requirement for the Ph.D.; it is only in unusual personal circumstances that students may fail to enroll in a workshop.  Permission not to enroll in a Workshop must be granted by the director of graduate studies.

### Prospectus and Topical Examination

After completing the second year paper, Ph.D. candidates are assigned a third-year advisor and enroll in Philosophy 333. Consulting with this advisor, the candidate develops a dissertation topic, chooses a prospective principal dissertation advisor as well as at least one other committee member, and writes a prospectus for the dissertation.  When the prospectus is complete, a candidate must pass an oral topical examination on the prospectus. If the topical examination is not passed, it must be taken again and passed by the beginning of the winter recess in the year immediately following.  Normally students have a successful topical by the end of their fourth year in the program.

Requirements for a prospectus are set by a student's dissertation committee and may vary with committee membership. That said, in many cases a good default model for a prospectus will simply be a list of clear, straightforward answers to the following five questions: (1) What question(s) do you intend your dissertation to answer? (2) Why do you consider these questions to be important? (3) What is a good summary of what you consider to be the most important contributions to these questions in the literature? (4) Why, in your view, do these contributions leave more work to be done? (5) What is your tentative plan of attack (including a list of sources you anticipate using)? Think of your answers to these questions as building a case for why your dissertation project needs to be done, along with a sketch of how you in particular plan to do it. Finally, limit yourself to ~5000 words.

Although called an examination, a topical (which is approximately ninety minutes in length) is in fact a conference on the dissertation topic, not an occasion on which the candidate is expected to produce a complete outline of arguments and conclusions. The conference is intended to determine the acceptability of the topic on which the candidate wishes to write a dissertation, the candidate’s fitness to undertake such a dissertation, and the candidate’s command of relevant issues in related areas of philosophy. A dissertation on the proposed topic may be submitted only if the topical examination is passed.

Application to take the topical examination must be made to the director of graduate studies at least two weeks in advance. At the same time, the candidate must submit copies of a dissertation prospectus to the director of graduate studies and members of the student’s prospective committee.

### Dissertation and Final Examination

When the topical examination is passed, the examining committee normally becomes the dissertation advisory committee. One member of this committee is designated the candidate’s primary advisor. It is possible, with the approval of the primary advisor and DGS, to add a faculty member from another institution to the dissertation committee, but at least two members of the committee, including the primary advisor, must be tenure stream members of the Harvard philosophy department.  At least three months before the deadline for formal submission of the dissertation, the candidate must submit to the advisory committee a legible draft of the dissertation or a considerable part of it. With the consent of the committee, the candidate may then go on to prepare a final draft for submission to the department. The dissertation must show a mastery of the field in which it is written; it must demonstrate the candidate’s insight, originality, and power of independent research; and it must add to the sum of human knowledge and understanding. Apart from these general requirements, there are no formal restrictions on the subject or construction of the dissertation, but the candidate is advised to write on a distinct and sharply limited problem. Dissertations of more than 75,000 words ordinarily will not be accepted.

The completed dissertation is read and appraised by a committee of three, usually identical to the candidate’s dissertation advisory committee. (If the advisory committee has had only two members, a third must be added to the examining committee.) This committee, if it finds the dissertation sufficiently promising, conducts the final oral examination, in which the dissertation must be adequately defended before its acceptance by the department. (The examination is public and may be attended by other members of the department if they wish.) The purpose of this last examination, which is normally about one hour in length, is not so much to test the range and detail of the candidate’s information as to judge the candidate’s skill in presenting and discussing matters considered in the dissertation and the candidate’s ability to meet friendly but searching criticism.

### PhD in Classical Philosophy

The departments of the Classics and Philosophy collaborate in an interdisciplinary PhD program in Classical Philosophy for students registered in either department. Candidates whose major field is philosophy are expected to take the Proseminar for graduate students in the classics, as well as attend seminars or other courses in classics relevant to their interests. With the approval of the director of graduate studies, students in the Classical Philosophy program may be permitted to count an appropriate course in ancient philosophy toward the distribution requirement in metaphysics and epistemology and one (in addition to the one already required) toward the requirement in history of philosophy.

Language requirements:

Candidates who plan to write a dissertation in Classical Philosophy are expected to have learned at least one of the classical languages (Greek or Latin) before they are admitted. Depending upon the level of fluency they have reached before entering the program, they may be asked to take additional language or reading courses. If they have not previously studied the second language, they will be required to reach the level of one year of college coursework. This can be done either by taking courses or by passing a language examination. In addition, candidates will be expected to have acquired a reading knowledge of German sufficient for reading scholarly literature and to pass a departmental examination on a suitably chosen text. The rules and procedures for the dissertation will, in general, be those established for candidates in philosophy.

### PhD in Indian Philosophy

The departments of Philosophy and South Asian Studies collaborate in an interdisciplinary PhD program in Indian Philosophy for students registered in either department. Candidates whose major field is Philosophy are expected to take advanced language courses in South Asian studies and pass AM qualifying examinations. Candidates whose major field is South Asian studies are expected to fulfill the requirements of students in Philosophy, including distribution and logic requirements.  With the approval of the director of graduate studies, students in Indian Philosophy may be permitted to count appropriate course in advanced Sanskrit or Tibetan toward the distribution requirement in metaphysics or epistemology and one toward the requirement in history of philosophy.

Language Requirements:

Candidates who plan to write a dissertation in Indian Philosophy are expected to have learned at least one of the relevant classical languages (Sanskrit or Tibetan) before they are admitted to the program. Depending upon the level of fluency they have reached before entering the program, they may be asked to take additional language or reading courses. In addition, candidates will be expected to satisfy the specific language requirements of their home department.  The rules and procedures for the dissertation will, in general, be those established for candidates in Philosophy.

### JD/PhD in Philosophy and Law

A coordinated JD/PhD in Philosophy and Law is available. Students wishing to obtain the coordinated degrees must be admitted separately to both programs. Students admitted for the coordinated degrees must begin either with the first full year of law school or the first two years of philosophy; after that they may alternate terms as they choose. The program in Law may be completed in five terms. The requirements for philosophy are the same as for regular philosophy graduate students. For more information please see the JD/PhD Coordinated Program section.

### The Master of Arts (AM) in Philosophy

The Department does not admit students for degrees other than the PhD. Students who have been admitted for the PhD and who have completed all course requirements for the degree may apply to be awarded an AM in Philosophy.

Harvard PhD students from programs (such as African and African-American Studies) which require PhD students to take courses required for an AM in another program are not required to take the first year colloquium required of Philosophy PhDs. (Students from these programs who wish to the take the colloquium must consult with the DGS.) Students from these programs who have completed 10 philosophy courses which satisfy the course requirements for a PhD and who have satisfied the distribution requirements for the PhD may apply to be awarded an AM in Philosophy.

A student who is pursuing an ad hoc degree administered in part by the Philosophy Department may petition to receive a Master of Arts degree in Philosophy.  To receive this degree the student must have taken a total of 10 courses in Philosophy at the level of 100 or higher. At least two of these courses must satisfy the graduate distribution requirement in metaphysics and epistemology, two must satisfy the practical philosophy distribution requirement, two the history distribution requirement, and one must be a logic course.   All must be passed with a grade of B or better.  Students may receive this degree only when the Department has voted to support their petition.

### Secondary Field in Philosophy

Much work in philosophy speaks directly to one or more disciplines which have Harvard PhD programs --literature, physics, statistics, science, mathematics, linguistics, and economics, to name a few. A secondary field in Philosophy gives students from other disciplines an opportunity to step back and look at the big picture in their discipline, putting students from discipline X in a position to do "philosophy of X" as part of doing X, thereby helping them both to understand their field more deeply and to open a path to developing it in innovative ways.

Graduate students may apply to the Philosophy Department to do a secondary field after their first term as a graduate student at Harvard. Secondary field students normally begin the secondary field in the second or third semester at Harvard, normally taking one or two courses a semester until they have completed the secondary field requirements.

Applicants should contact the Philosophy DGS before applying to do a secondary field in Philosophy. Applications must include: a brief statement explaining what the applicant hopes to achieve with the secondary field, including a brief summary of the applicant's background in philosophy; a copy of the undergraduate transcript (this can be a copy sent from the student's home department at Harvard) and a brief letter from a Harvard faculty member of the student's home department discussing how a secondary field in philosophy would contribute to the student's work in the home department.

To complete a secondary field in philosophy, a student completes four courses in philosophy at the 100 level or higher with a grade of B+ or better. One course must be in the area of one of the Department's PhD distribution requirements: moral and political philosophy; metaphysics and epistemology; logic; history of philosophy. A second course must be in another of these areas. At least one course must be a graduate seminar. In principle, an independent study with a member of the Department may be used to complete the secondary field. A capstone project is not required. Courses are counted towards satisfying the secondary field requirements only when approved to do so by the Philosophy DGS.

A student completing a secondary field in philosophy is assigned an advisor from the Philosophy Department, normally the DGS.